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TREATMENT OF BK POLYOMAVIRUS-ASSOCIATED NEPHROPATHY IN PAEDIATRIC KIDNEY TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS: LEFLUNOMIDE VERSUS CIDOFOVIR

GÜLŞAH KAYA AKSOY, MİNE ERKAN, MUSTAFA KOYUN, ELİF ÇOMAK, HAVVA SERAP TORU, DERYA MUTLU, BAHAR AKKAYA, SEMA AKMAN

Experimental and Clinical Transplantation - 2024;22(1):29-34

Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Akdeniz University Faculty of Medicine, Antalya, Turkey

 

Objectives: BK polyomavirus-associated nephropathy is a clinicopathological entity that negatively affects graft function in kidney transplant recipients. We compared the efficacy of leflunomide and cidofovir to treat BK polyomavirus-associated nephropathy in pediatric kidney transplant recipients. Material and Methods: Medical records of pediatric recipients with BK viremia for the period 2004 through 2019 were reviewed retrospectively, and patients diagnosed with BK polyomavirusassociated nephro-pathy were included in the study. A serum BK virus level above 104 copies/mL was accepted as BK viremia. We defined BK polyomavirusassociated nephropathy as detection of BK virus SV40 antigen on immunochemistry staining of renal graft tissue accompanied by signs of tubulointerstitial nephritis or elevated serum creatinine in addition to BK viremia. Results: Of 304 kidney transplant recipients, 53 had persistent BK viremia; 36 of these patients (61.1% male) were included in the study with the diagnosis of BK polyomavirus-associated nephropathy. Twelve patients (33.3%) received cidofovir, and 14 (38.8%) received leflunomide. Results were similar between the cidofovir and leflunomide groups for serum creatinine level at last follow-up (0.91 ± 0.29 vs 0.94 ± 0.37 mg/dL, respectively; P = .843) and graft failure rate (8.3% vs 14.2%, respectively; P = .632). Graft failure was observed in 8.3% of patients with BK polyomavirus-associated nephropathy. Conclusions: Leflunomide and cidofovir showed similar efficacy for treatment of BK polyomavirus-associated nephropathy.